DNA Diet & Fitness 3 Test Combo

Adequate levels of vitamins and minerals are needed for growth, repair and maintenance of the human body. Deficiencies increase the risk of certain diseases and can lead to numerous health issues, including fatigue, skin problems, depression, headaches, memory loss, vision problems, reduced immunity and brittle bones.

This test identifies genetic variants that influence how efficiently an individual is able to absorb, activate and utilize vitamins and minerals. Individuals that carry these specific genetic variants are at increased risk of nutritional deficiencies and dietary changes may be required to ensure a healthy nutritional status.

What is included in this test?
An understanding of your genetic variation allows you to customize your diet and nutritional planning. This test identifies variants that affect these vitamins and minerals:

Vitamin A is important for vision, immune function, skin health, bone growth and reproduction. It is obtained in our diet from animal sources (as the retinol form) and plant sources (predominantly as beta-carotene in orange-red fruits and vegetables). After absorption, beta-carotene must be converted into active vitamin A, by the beta-carotene oxygenase 1 (BCO1) enzyme.

  • BCO1 – encodes the BCO1 enzyme. Four common changes in BCO1 affect the activity of the enzyme and influence the availability of active vitamin A. Individuals that are slow converters (decreased BCO1 activity) are at risk of vitamin A deficiency, and it is important for these people to consume more animal-sourced vitamin A (retinol form).

Vitamin B6 is needed for carbohydrate metabolism, cognitive development, immune function, skin health and hemoglobin formation. It is found in high quantities in chickpeas, fish, beef liver, starchy vegetables and non-citrus fruits.

  • NBPF3 – encodes a protein of unknown function. A variation in NBPF3 increases the risk of vitamin B6 deficiency

Vitamin B12 is necessary for the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, and is required for DNA synthesis and the metabolism of fatty acids and amino acids. Fish, meat, poultry, eggs and milk are rich sources of vitamin B12.

  • FUT2 – encodes part of a complex involved in host-microbe interactions. A variation in FUT2 distinguishes between “secretors” and “non-secretors”. Individuals with the “non-secretor” variant are protected from infection with H. pylori and are less likely to suffer from vitamin B12 deficiency.

Vitamin C is involved in the production of several critical biological molecules (e.g. collagen and neurotransmitters), immune response, wound healing, absorption of non-heme iron, and as an antioxidant to remove toxic byproducts. Foods that are high in vitamin C include dark leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, broccoli, berries and tomatoes.

  • SLC23A1 – encodes a transporter that is important for maintaining healthy vitamin C levels. A variation in SLC23A1 reduces the absorption and distribution of vitamin C and increase the risk of deficiency.

Vitamin D is required to modulate cell growth, aid in immune functions, decrease inflammation and maintain normal bone growth and remodelling. Ultraviolet B radiation (from sunlight) triggers the synthesis of vitamin D in the body. Vitamin D can also be obtained from some foods, including fatty fish, fish liver oils and fortified foods (e.g. infant formula, milk and cereals).

  • CYP2R1 – encodes an enzyme responsible for part of the conversion process of vitamin D into physiologically active calcitriol. Variants of CYP2R1 are associated with reduced enzyme activity and reduced levels of active vitamin D.
  • GC – encodes a binding protein that is required to transport active vitamin D around the body and into the cells. Variations of GC reduce the efficiency of vitamin D transport and cellular uptake.

Vitamin E promotes the immune system, healthy eyes and skin, as well as a number of other metabolic processes. High levels of vitamin E are found in nuts, seeds and vegetable oils.

  • APOA5 – encodes an apolipoprotein that helps control plasma triglyceride levels, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) maturation, cholesterol metabolism, and the transport of vitamin E into the cells. A genetic variant of APOA5 has been shown to influence vitamin E levels.

Folate is essential for proper growth and development, and is important for the conversion of the toxic homocysteine amino acid to methionine. Dark green vegetables and dried legumes are good sources of folate.

  • MTHFD1 – encodes an important enzyme in the metabolism of folate, and variants in MTHFD1 have been linked to folate-related disorders.
  • MTHFR – encodes an enzyme required for the activation of folate. Changes in MTHFR lead to lower levels of active folate circulating in the body.

Iron is required to make hemoglobin – an essential protein that transports oxygen around the body. Iron is obtained from both meat and plant sources and is transported by transferrin to other tissues around the body.

  • TMPRSS6 – encodes part of the signalling pathway that controls iron absorption from the diet and iron release from stores within the body. Variants in TMPRSS6 disrupt this pathway and can increase the risk of iron deficiency.
  • TF – encodes transferrin, the transporter of iron around the body. One particular variant of TF is associated with increased transferrin but less efficient binding to iron, so less iron is transported around the body, increasing the risk of iron deficiency.

Omega-3 fatty acids are important for normal, healthy metabolism. They are found in pant and fatty fish oil.

  • NOS3 – encodes an enzyme required for the production of nitric oxide, a signalling molecule that plays a protective role in the cardiovascular system. A variant in NOS3 influences triglyceride levels and how effectively individuals respond to omega-3 supplementation.

Scientific research has identified multiple genetic variants that have a significant influence on an individual’s body weight and response to specific diets. This test identifies genetic variants that affect obesity risk and weight loss ability, enabling individuals to follow a diet and exercise plan tailored to their genes.

Obesity
Obesity is a worldwide problem that affects all ages and ethnicities. According to the World Health Organization, obesity affects 600 million adults (13% of the world’s adult population) and 41 million children under the age of five years. Obese individuals have a higher risk of multiple health problems, particularly cardiovascular issues, type 2 diabetes, liver disease, obstructive sleep apnea, cancer, asthma and osteoarthritis. Due to these health complications, obesity is associated with a reduced life expectancy (averaging 6 – 7 years lower than healthy weight individuals).

DNA influences obesity risk
Obesity risk is influenced by poor diet and lifestyle choices (e.g. excess calories and lack of exercise), but it is also strongly influenced by an individual’s genetic makeup. Genetic variation affects food choices and desire, motivation to get out and exercise, digestion, metabolism, hormone pathways, and even the circadian rhythm.

What is included in this test?
This test identifies genetic changes in these genes:

  • MC4R – encodes a receptor that plays a role in appetite suppression and increased metabolism. A genetic variant near MC4R disrupts appetite this suppression, increasing the likelihood of excessive snacking and overeating.
  • NMB – encodes a protein that has many biological effects that can affect food intake and obesity risk. A genetic variant in NMB is associated with a tendency to overeat.
  • FTO – encodes the fat mass and obesity associated protein, of which the functions are not yet fully understood. Three common genetic variants in FTO influence energy intake, diet impact and satiety.
  • SH2B1 – encodes a component of the satiety hormone signalling pathway. A genetic variant in SH2B1 disrupts this pathway and individuals tend to not get the same feeling of fullness after eating.
  • BDNF – encodes a neurotrophin, which has an important role in energy balance regulation in the brain. A genetic variant in BDNF influences energy balance and obesity risk by altering an individual’s motivation to exercise.
  • APOA2 – encodes a protein found in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. A genetic variant in APOA2 affects how an individual responds to their saturated fat intake.
  • AMY1 – encodes the salivary form of the amylase enzyme. One genetic variant in AMY1 decreases amylase levels and reduces the ability to digest starch.
  • FABP2 – encodes an intestinal protein that is involved in the absorption and metabolism of fatty acids from the diet. A genetic variant in FABP2 alters the uptake and processing of fatty acids.
  • ADIPOQ – encodes the adiponectin protein, which is an important regulator of glucose levels and fatty acid metabolism. There are three common genetic variations in ADIPOQ that influence the risk of obesity and the likelihood of regaining weight if an individual does not maintain a low-calorie diet.
  • ADRB2 – encodes the beta-2 adrenergic receptor, which interacts with epinephrine (adrenaline) to mediate a diverse range of physiological responses, including the generation of glucose for energy, lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation and insulin secretion. A genetic variation in ADRB2 is linked to obesity risk and weight loss in response to exercise and carbohydrate intake, particularly in women.
  • CLOCK – encodes a regulator of circadian rhythms. A genetic variant in CLOCK disrupts the circadian patterning of metabolism-related functions, leading to an increased risk of obesity.

Physical activity is essential for a healthy body and mind, but everyone responds differently to different types of exercises, whether the goal is to lose weight, improve muscle tone or run a faster marathon. Some overweight individuals will lose significant weight by starting a walking or running program, while others won’t lose much weight with this method, but may see great benefits from strength training at the gym. There is also wide variation in athletic ability, pain tolerance, susceptibility to injury and even exercise motivation. An individual’s upbringing, current lifestyle and genetic variation all contribute to these differences.

This test identifies genetic variants that influence athletic endurance, athletic power, muscular strength, response to exercise, exercise motivation, recovery rate, injury risk and pain tolerance. The results of this test allow individuals to obtain the most benefit from their exercise routine by following a personalized exercise plan based on their genetics.

NOTE: The genetic variants identified in this panel have been studied in Caucasian populations, but the same association may not be apparent in other ethnicities.

What is included in this test?

Athletic endurance is the ability to continue exercising for an extended period. Endurance events include long-distance running, swimming, cycling, mountain climbing and rowing, but we also require endurance to get through a game of soccer or rugby. Athletic endurance is influenced by genetic variations of:

  • PPARD – burning fat for energy
  • VEGFA – blood vessel formation to improve oxygen supply
  • ACE – blood pressure regulation and muscle efficiency
  • ADRB2 – turning off the fight or flight response
  • PPARA – slow-twitch versus fast-twitch muscle fibres

Athletic power combines strength with a speed ability to apply this strength in a quick motion. For example, a sprinter requires strength and speed for a rapid acceleration, while a baseball pitcher requires a very strong arm that can rapidly rotate resulting in pitches as fast as 100 mph! Athletic power is influenced by genetic variations of:

  • ACTN3 – the “sprinter” gene
  • AGT – blood pressure regulation and growth hormone levels

Strength training is physical exercise specializing in the use of resistance to induce muscular contraction, which builds the strength and size of skeletal muscles. Muscular strength is influenced by genetic variations of:

  • ACVR1B – muscle signalling cascade that controls muscle mass and muscle strength
  • IL6 – messenger molecule and contributes to muscle growth

Response to exercise differs from individual to individual. Some people see greater benefits from endurance training, while others benefit more from strength training. Your exercise response is influenced by genetic variations of:

  • PPARGC1A – aerobic capacity improvements
  • PPARD – increases in “good” HDL-cholesterol
  • MCT1 – ability to use lactate as an energy source

Motivation, recovery, injury risk and pain tolerance are all influenced by genetic variations:

  • BDNF – exercise motivation
  • CRP – heart rate recovery
  • COL1A1 – risk of soft tissue injury
  • COL5A1 – risk of Achilles tendinopathy
  • COMT – pain tolerance and required morphine dose


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